- December 21, 2020
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Their rule of the empire continued until 1453, when Ottoman sultan Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople and the final Palaiologan emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos, died in the city's defense. Medal of the Emperor John VIII Palaiologos during his visit to Florence, by Pisanello (1438). Murad II's young son and successor, Mehmed II, who became sultan in 1451, was obsessed with the idea of conquering Constantinople. Palaiologoi; Greek: Παλαιολόγος, pl. He encouraged a reform of the law courts and promoted commercial independence from the Genoese and Venetians by initiating a large shipbuilding project. Demetrios drew support for his opposition to the union between the Orthodox and Catholic churches.  Though such Palaiologoi, imperial or not, were mainly concentrated in northern Italy, such as in Pesaro, Viterbo or Venice, other Greek refugees travelled across Europe, many ending up in Rome, Naples, Milan, Paris or in various cities in Spain.  Whether he had any children is uncertain. He succeeded his father as Byzantine Emperor in 1341, at age nine. يرجى إيراد مصادر موثوق بها.  It would be difficult to explain why Allatius, a respected scholar, would simply make up a member of an ancient dynasty. Britannica Quiz.  The only Marquis to seriously consider using his Byzantine connection was Theodore's son, John II of Montferrat, who wished to take advantage of the Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347, between Andronikos II's great-grandson John V and John VI Kantakouzenos, in order to invade the empire and conquer Thessaloniki.  Even during the final decades of the Byzantine Empire, the Palaiologoi often found it difficult to cooperate with each other.  Michael's son and successor Andronikos II wished to further legitimize the rule of the Palaiologan dynasty. Manuel II Palaiologos(27 June 1350 – 21 July 1425); 4.  Under their rule, the Morea was transformed into somewhat of a Byzantine government-in-exile, as Byzantine refugees from Constantinople and elsewhere fled to their courts, some even wishing to proclaim Demetrios, the elder brother, as Constantine's successor and the new Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans. While the genealogies of many supposedly surviving branches of the imperial dynasty can easily be dismissed as fantasy, others, such as the genealogy of a lineage from Pesaro which survived until at least the late 17th century, are more plausible. , Michael VIII succeeded in achieving a union of the Catholic and Orthodox churches at the Second Council of Lyons in 1274, legitimizing him and his successors as rulers of Constantinople in the eyes of the West. Cantacuzenus proclaimed himself emperor, however, at Didymoteichos on Oct. 26, 1341. , In 1373, John V's son and heir Andronikos IV Palaiologos rebelled against his father in an attempt to seize the throne, instigating a fourth series of Palaiologan civil wars. Irene Palaiologina (c. 1349 – after 1362), who married her first cousin Khalil of Bithynia.  Constantine also sent desperate pleas for aid to Western Europe, though little help ever arrived. The Byzantine civil wars, and the collapse of Stefan Dušan's Serbian Empire following his death in 1355, had allowed the Ottoman Turks to expand almost unopposed through the Balkans and in the second half of the 14th century, the empire passed almost without a fight under Ottoman sovereignty, forced to pay tribute and offer military aid if needed. In 1347, he entered Constantinople in triumph with an army of 1,000 men, and forced his opponents to an arrangement by which he became joint emperor with John V Palaiologos and sole administrator during the minority of his colleague.  For instance, Michael VIII Palaiologos's full name was Michael Komnenos Doukas Angelos Palaiologos. , Theodore's descendants, the Palaeologus-Montferrat family, ruled at Montferrat until the 16th century, though they were sometimes given Greek names, such as Theodore and Sophia, most of the Palaiologan Marquises of Montferrat paid little attention to affairs in the eastern Mediterranean.  Mehmed was victorious and annexed the region directly into the Ottoman Empire, ending Palaiologan rule in Greece. This second origin story is similar to family traditions of other Byzantine noble families, such as the Doukas or Phokas clans, who also used stories of ancient Roman descent to bolster their prestige and somewhat legitimize their claims to the throne of the Byzantine Empire, the Roman Empire's medieval continuation. S. Bendall (“A Note on the Hyperpyra of John V and VI (1347–1354),” 297, siglon C) shows at lower right, while this one has a ligature of and .This coin may have come from the hoard first mentioned by Bendall in “A Hyperpyron of Andronicus III and John V (A.D. 1341)?” However, Andronikos eventually escaped from prison and successfully took the throne in 1376 with aid from Genoa, imprisoning his father and his younger brother. In 1253, Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes accused him of plotting against the throne, though Michael escaped the accusation without punishment following a trial by ordeal of holding a red-hot iron.  On John IV's eleventh birthday, 25 December 1261, the boy was deposed, blinded and confined to a monastery. They had an unnamed son, who died shortly after birth in 1321. For his merits in the service of Venice, Theodore was granted the island Cranae, though he later ceded it to another family. , The Palaiologoi's many marriages with prominent Byzantine families was reflected in their choice of surnames, with earlier members of the imperial dynasty using the surnames of several of the previous ruling dynasties to reinforce their legitimacy. From 1328 to 1341 Cantacuzenus directed both domestic and foreign policy for the Emperor.  The absence of any mentions of John Palaiologos in contemporary sources means that the Paleologus family's status as genuine male-line descendants of the last few Byzantine emperors can not be proven, but it is not impossible. John VII Palaiologos or Palaeologus was Byzantine emperor for five months in 1390, from 14 April to 17 September. Demetrios surrendered to the Ottomans without a fight and Thomas escaped into exile. Additionally, they continued to style themselves as despots of Epirus until the 17th century, when they instead began to title themselves as princes of Achaea. While he was Emperor, there is evidence showing he used the name Andronikos, after his father, although when he was regent during his  Andreas's brother Manuel died in Constantinople at some point during the reign of Mehmed II's son and successor Bayezid II (r. , Although the imperial dynasty went extinct in the male line, descendants of the Palaiologan emperors survived for centuries through the lineages of various daughters. A 1463 document supposedly signed by King Ferdinand I of Aragon records the granting of some lands in the vicinity of San Mauro to Rogerio, son of "illustrissimi Thomae Palaeologi dispoti Moreae". His nephew, Zuanne Paleologo, and two of Zuanne's sons, died on Cyprus, fighting the Ottomans during the 1570 Siege of Nicosia in the Fourth Ottoman–Venetian War.  After a 53-day long siege, the city finally fell to the Ottomans on 29 May 1453. That Andronikos suffered from elephantiasis and epilepsy, and that he died at a young age, makes it unlikely that he married and had a son. As John VI, Cantacuzenus agreed to reign for only 10 years and to allow John V to rule alone after that time.  According to Russian sources, he might also have had a daughter, Maria Palaiologina, who married a Russian prince. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. When his brother, Emperor John VIII Palaiologos, died childless, a dispute erupted between Constantine and his brother Demetrios Palaiologos over the throne. John VII Palaiologos was the son of Emperor Andronikos IV Palaiologos and Keratsa of Bulgaria, a daughter of Emperor Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria and Theodora of Wallachia. John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus (_el. In 1394, Manuel II ceased to pay tribute to the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I, who responded by besieging Constantinople.  Once news of the act, the blinding of not only the legitimate emperor, but an underage boy, got out, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Arsenios Autoreianos, excommunicated Michael. , It is possible that many of the modern people who bear the name are descended from wealthy Greeks in the Ottoman period, who commonly assumed Byzantine surnames and claimed descent from the famous noble houses of their Byzantine past. In 1320, Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos attempted to disinherit his grandson Andronikos III Palaiologos, despite the death of Andronikos II's son, heir and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos (Andronikos III's father).  The etymology of their family name was believed to be "ragman" by Soviet-American Byzantinist Alexander Kazhdan, possibly referencing humble origins, whereas the French Byzantinist Jean-François Vannier believes the correct etymology to be "antique collector". Advances in science and the arts, referred to as the Palaiologan Renaissance, lasted throughout the dynasty's rule, encouraged by the efforts of some emperors such as Andronikos II and Manuel II.  The earliest record of John's existence other than Theodore's tombstone are the writings of the Greek scholar Leo Allatius, who wrote in 1648, too late for his works to be considered independent evidence. When the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade took Constantinople in 1204 and overthrew the Byzantine Empire in favor of the new, Catholic, Latin Empire, the Palaiologoi followed Theodore I Laskaris to the Empire of Nicaea, where they played an active role and continued to occupy offices of high rank. Notable ancestors includeCharlemagne (747-814), Alfred the Great (849-899), William I of England (1027-1087), Hugh Capet (c940-996). , In contrast to these ancient and prestigious origin stories, the Palaiologoi probably actually originated relatively late in Anatolia, possibly in the Anatolic Theme. 28 ] Demetrios lived in the Papal Guard and dead in 1508 was his son, was., his underage son John V appealed to the imperial family Constantine died., who married her first cousin Khalil of Bithynia their own contemporaries appear to have garnered an impressive.. Betrayed their faith and as such their entire imperial ideology and World view was to... 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